Structured cabling system (SCS) is a set of cabling and connectivity products that integrate the voice, data, video and various management systems of a building (such as safety alarms, security systems, energy systems, networks, etc). Structured cabling design and installation is governed by a set of standards that specify wiring data centers, offices, and apartment buildings for data or voice communications using various kinds of cable, most commonly category 5e (CAT-5e), category 6 (CAT-6), and fibre optic cabling and modular connectors. These standards define how to lay the cabling in various topologies in order to meet the needs of the customer, typically using a central patch panel, from where each modular connection can be used as needed. Each outlet is then patched into a network switch for network use or into an IP or PBX (private branch exchange) telephone system patch panel.
Structured cabling falls into five subsystems:-
Demarcation point is the point where the telephone company network ends and connects with the on-premises wiring at the customer premises.
Equipment or Telecommunications Rooms house equipment and wiring consolidation points that serve the users inside the building or campus.
Vertical or Riser Cabling connects between the equipment/telecommunications rooms, so named because the rooms are typically on different floors.
Horizontal wiring can be IW (inside wiring) or Plenum Cabling and connects telecommunications rooms to individual outlets or work areas on the floor, usually through the wireways, conduits or ceiling spaces of each floor.
Work-Area Components connect end-user equipment to outlets of the horizontal cabling system.